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Normal retina (top), Bleeding in the eye (bottom)
Membranes and abnormal vessels

Diabetes

How does diabetes affect the eye?

Diabetes is a disease that results in increased blood sugar.  Diabetes is known to affect the eye in various ways, from cataracts to problems in the retina (also called diabetic retinopathy). Because the innermost layer of the eye is full of blood vessels, the high blood sugar weakens the small vessels of the retina and result in hemorrhages or bleeding inside the eye.  A decrease in healthy vessels can create retinal ischemia or oxygen starvation prompting formation of new but abnormal vessels.  These new vessels can bleed and create membranes and scar tissue, which can exert pull on the retina that may eventually lead to retinal detachment. If undiagnosed and left untreated, diabetic retinopathy can lead to blindness.

What are the symptoms of diabetic retinopathy?

Patients with retinopathy may experience various symptoms depending on the stage of eye disease, ranging from blurred vision, floaters and flashes to sudden loss of vision. However, most of the time, there will be no symptoms in the early stages of retinopathy. It is when the condition is already severe that you will experience symptoms.

How is diabetic retinopathy diagnosed?

Fluorescein Angiogram

Routine eye examinations are necessary for early detection and treatment of diabetes-related eye problems. In certain cases, the eye doctor relies on various tests such as fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography and ocular ultrasound to diagnose the condition and make decisions regarding treatment. Fluorescein angiography, for instance, is useful for determining whether or not there is proper circulation in the retinal vessels and for detecting areas with abnormal leakage which may not be obvious on clinical examination.

Early referral to an eye doctor is particularly important for patients with diabetes. Regular eye checkups may help in early detection and prompt treatment, reducing the risk of complicated diabetic eye disease and blindness.


Laser Treatment

How is diabetic retinopathy treated?

Control of blood sugar is essential to delay the occurrence or progression of diabetic retinopathy.  Laser therapy called panretinal photocoagulation is usually the method of choice for the treatment of abnormal retinal vessels. The ophthalmologist uses laser to destroy oxygen-deprived retinal tissue, thereby preventing the continued growth of the fragile vessels and sealing leaking ones.

However, laser treatment may not be sufficient in severe conditions like retinal detachment, where surgery may be necessary.


Normal retina (top), Bleeding in the eye (bottom)
Membranes and abnormal vessels

Diabetes

Paano naaapektuhan ng diabetes ang mata?

Ang diabetes ay isang kondisyon na nagreresulta sa mataas na blood sugar. Maaring magkaroon ng maagang katarata ang taong may diabetes, o retinopathy na kung saan ay nasisira ang retina dahil sa mataas na blood sugar sa mga ugat sa mata. Maaring magkaroon ng pagdurugo sa mata o pagtubo ng mga abnormal na ugat dahil sa kakulangan sa oxygen. Maaring magkaroon ng mga sapot at peklat sa retina, na maaring magdulot ng retinal detachment. Kung hindi mabibigyan ng akmang paggamot, maaring mahantong ito sa pagkabulag.

Ano ang mga sintomas ng diabetic retinopathy?

Madalas ay walang nararamdaman ang taong may problema sa mata dulot ng diabetes. Kung malala na ang kondisyon, maaring makaramdam ng floaters, kisap ng ilaw, o biglaang panlalabo ng paningin.

Paano malalaman kung ako ay may diabetic retinopathy?

Mahalaga ang regular eye checkup upang makita kung may mga senyales na ng diabetic retinopathy. May mga pagkakataong kailangan ng mga eksaminasyon tulad ng fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography o ocular ultrasound upang malaman ang estado ng daloy ng dugo sa mga ugat sa mata at malaman kung gaano kalala ang retinopathy.

Flourescin Angiogram

Ang regular na check up ay mahalaga upang maagang malaman kung merong retinopathy ang taong may diabetes upang mabigyang ng akmang lunas bago pa maging komplikado ito.

Paano ginagamot ang diabetic retinopathy?

Ang kontrol ng blood sugar ay napakahalaga upang ma-delay ang pagkakaroon o mapigilan ang paglala ng diabetic retinopathy. Ang laser (o panretinal photocoagulation ay ang karaniwang paraaan ng pagpuksa ng mga abnormal na ugat sa retina. Ngunit, kung malubha na ang kondisyon, maaring kailangan na ng operasyon.


Laser Treatment